Mood disorders are disorders that cause disturbances in moods. It can also be seen as an alteration in the emotional state of an individual. It is a common condition which affects every individual in any given population at one point or another. Mood disorder varies according to personality differences among individuals. It ranges from acute to chronic states depending on the level of severity in each individual. It can affect one’s performance, productivity and relationships if not promptly managed. Here are the types and causes of mood disorders;

Causes of Mood Disorders

It is difficult to determine the actual cause of mood disorders but it can be traced to the following factors:

  • Psychological
  • Environmental
  • Biological
  • Genetic factors

Other risk factors include:

Types of Mood Disorders

  1. Mania: This is a condition characterised by extreme hyperactivity, elation, restlessness, increased energy and motivation in carrying out activities which are abnormal. This form a phase of manifestation in the bipolar disorder. Other characteristics include:
  • Heightened self-esteem or positive outlook
  • Excessive sleeping or insomnia
  • Prolonged periods of elation
  • Restlessness
  • Irritability
  • Agitation or excessive energy
  • Feelings of grandiosity
  • Headaches, body aches, pains, cramps or digestive problems
  • Difficulty remembering details
  • Difficulty making decisions or concentrating
  • Loss of appetite or overeating


  1. Depression: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is the most common illness worldwide and the leading cause of disability. The organization estimated that 350 million people are affected by depression, globally. Depression is a persistently low mood disorder and a feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Sufferers may have lots of physical complaints without any apparent physical cause. It is characterised by the following:
  • Thoughts of and attempts at suicide
  • Loss of interest in previously pleasurable activities
  • Unyielding anxiety, sadness or feelings of emptiness
  • Feelings of worthlessness
  • Pressured or rapid speech
  • Feelings of helplessness or guilt
  • Flight of thoughts and jumping from one idea to the next
  • Increased goal-directed activities
  • Feelings of hopelessness
  • Being easily distracted
  • Insomnia

You Should Read: Triggers and Treatments of Depression in Men

  1. Bipolar disorders: This mental condition affects about 60 million people worldwide. It causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). These mood swings can affect sleep, energy, activity, judgment, behaviour and the ability to think clearly. Episodes of mood swings may occur rarely or multiple times a year.

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