Pre-menstrual syndrome refers to symptoms that affect the physical and emotional health of a woman 1-2 weeks before the onset of her menstruation and disappears at the commencement of her menstrual period.It is a very common condition that affects about 85% of women worldwide. Pre-menstrual syndrome occurs more often in women who are between their late 20s and early 40s

The exact cause is unknown. The underlying mechanism is believed to involve changes in hormone levels. Some symptoms may be worsened by a high-salt diet, alcohol or caffeine.

Risk factors

The risk factors for premenstrual syndrome include:

  • Family history of pre-menstrual syndrome
  • Previous medical history of post-par tum depression or mood disorders
  • Substance abuse
  • Physical or emotional trauma
  • Domestic violence

Pre-menstrual syndrome is not really associated with any personality factors or specific personality types. Also, a number of studies have shown that psychological stress is not related to the severity of premenstrual syndrome.

Signs and symptoms

The signs and symptoms of pre-menstrual disease are non-specific and they include;

  • Feeling stressed
  • Anxiety,
  • Difficulty with sleep,
  • Headache,
  • Feeling tired,
  • Mood swings
  • Increased emotional sensitivity,
  • Change in sexual interest
  • Water retention
  • Bloating
  • Breast tenderness
  • Food cravings, fatigue


  • The various treatment options of premenstrual syndrome includes;
  • Reduction in salt and caffeine consumption
  • Reduction in consumption of refined sugar
  • Stop smoking
  • Increased exercise
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplements may be helpful in some women.
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs such as naproxen may help with physical symptoms.
  • Birth control pills may be useful in those with very severe symptoms.
  • Antidepressants
  • Diuretics can be given by a doctor to reduce bloating

There is currently no cure for pre-menstrual syndrome. It is important other similar conditions such as pregnancy, depression, amenorrhea, anxiety disorder and schizophrenia are ruled out before coming to the diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome.

Proper diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes can improve overall health and thereby lead to the reduction of symptoms.










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