Mania is the Greek word for madness. An abnormally elevated mood state characterized by inappropriate elation, increased irritability, markedly increased energy and activity level, poor judgment, and inappropriate social behaviour. This episode is seen in a form of bipolar disorder which can last a week or more. A person with mania can exhibit either irritability or elation at any time depending on the symptoms observed by the person’s friends and relatives. These symptoms can be seen as severe when it gets to the point of causing malfunction at work or role impairment with friends and family. It can be severe enough to demand hospitalization.
Types of Mania
- Mixed affective states: This is formerly known as mixed-manicor mixed It is defined as a state wherein features unique to both depression and mania such as despair, fatigue, morbid or suicidal thoughts, pressure of activity, and heightened irritability occur either simultaneously or in very short succession.
- Hypomania: Is a condition of low mania episodes, which is similar to mania but less severe. A hypomania person will exhibit some symptoms of mania like elevated mood, increased energy in all; they do not cause significant distress or impair their work, family, or social life in an obvious way like manic episodes do.
Signs and Symptoms of Mania
- Lack of rest and sleep
- Increased self-esteem or pride (grandiosity)
- Distorted speech
- Flight of ideas
- Difficulty in concentration
- Decreased need for food
- Increase in goal directed activity
- Increased interest in pleasurable activities
- Heightened sense of smell and touch
- Being extremely impulsive
- Extreme talking
- Taking on too many projects and having nothing done.
Causes of Mania
- Family history
- High level of stress
- Use of stimulants e.g. drugs, alcohol
- Seasonal changes e.g. cold or dry
- Loss or bereavement
- Lack of sleep
- Violence or abuse
- Substance abuse
- Side effect of neurological condition e.g. dementia
- Physical examination
- Medical history
Mania isn’t curable but its symptoms can be controlled with medications and therapies which are more effective when combined together.
- Anti-psychotic drugs: These drugs help to relieve psychotic symptoms e.g. haloperidol, chlorpromazine
- Mood stabilizer: Works to reduce manic symptoms e.g. sodium valproate
- Anti-convulsant: To stabilize moods and abolish fits e.g. valproate, carbamazepine
- Adopting good lifestyle like eating balanced diets, Taking enough rest and sleep
- Psychotherapy: These are therapies put in place to correct negative thoughts, behaviours and lifestyle choices e.g. cognitive and behavioural therapy, family therapy.