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FRACTURE OF THE HIP
Hip fracture occurs when there is a break in the thigh bone which is referred to as the femur of the hip joint. Hip fracture occurs mostly common in females than males, and also mostly in people older than 60 years of age. Incidence of hip fracture increase mostly with age.

CAUSES OF HIP FRACTURE

  • A fall is the most common reason for a hip fracture among the elderly. It is common mostly in the elderly as a person gets older there is a loss of calcium in the bone which makes the bone weaker and thinner, generally due to osteoporosis.
  • In younger people, a hip fracture is a result of a car accident, a fall from a great height, or sometimes severe trauma.
  • Women, lose 30% to 50% of their bone density as they age. The loss of bone speeds up dramatically after menopause because they make less estrogen. Estrogen contributes to maintaining bone density and strength.

RISK FACTORS OF HIP FRACTURE.

• Old Age
• People suffering from osteoporosis.
• Excess consumption of Alcohol.
• Lack of physical activity.
• Low body weight.
• Poor nutrition, a diet low in calcium and vitamin D.
• Gender ( Female).
• Tall stature.
• Vision problems.
• Thinking problems such as dementia.
• Medicines that cause bone loss.
• Cigarette smoking.
• Increased risk for falls, related to conditions such as weakness, disability, or unsteady gait.

TYPES OF HIP FRACTURE
Femoral neck fracture. A femoral neck fracture happens 1 to 2 inches from your hip joint. It is most common among older adults and can be related to osteoporosis. This type of fracture may cause a complication because the break usually cuts off the blood supply to the head of the thighbone, which forms the hip joint.
Intertrochanteric hip fracture. An intertrochanteric hip fracture happens 3 to 4 inches from your hip joint. This type of fracture does not usually interrupt the blood supply to your bone and may be easier to repair.

SYMPTOMS OF HIP FRACTURE
Signs and symptoms of a hip fracture include:

• Inability to get up from a fall or to walk.
• Severe pain around the hip or groin region.
• Bruising and swelling in and around the hip area
• Shorter leg on the side of your injured hip.
• Inability to put weight on your leg on the side of your injured hip
• Outward turning of your leg on the side of your injured hip.

DIAGNOSIS OF FRACTURE OF THE HIP

In addition to a complete medical history and physical exam, diagnostic procedures for hip fracture may include the following:

• X-ray.
• MRI.
• CT scan.

TREATMENT

Treatment for a hip fracture usually involves a combination of surgery, rehabilitation, and medication.

Surgery
The type of surgery generally depends on where and how severe the fracture is, whether the broken bones aren’t properly aligned (displaced), age, and underlying health conditions. The options include:

Internal repair using screws. Metal screws are inserted into the bone to hold it together while the fracture heals. Sometimes screws are attached to a metal plate that runs down the femur.
Total hip replacement. The upper femur and the socket in the pelvic bone are replaced with artificial parts (prostheses).
Partial hip replacement. If the ends of the broken bone are displaced or damaged, the surgeon might remove the head and neck of the femur and install a metal replacement. Partial hip replacement might be recommended for adults who have other health conditions or cognitive impairment or who no longer live independently.

Rehabilitation
• Your care team will likely get you out of bed and moving on the first day after surgery.
• Physical therapy will initially focus on range-of-motion and strengthening exercises.
• Depending on the type of surgery you had and whether you have help at home, you might need to go from the hospital to an extended care facility.
• In extended care and at home, you might work with an occupational therapist to learn techniques for independence in daily life, such as using the toilet, bathing, dressing, and cooking.
• Your occupational therapist will determine if a walker or wheelchair might help you regain mobility and independence.

Prevention
• A woman at menopause should consider a bone density test primarily to diagnose osteoporosis and to determine fracture risk.
• Taking calcium daily.
• Regular weight-bearing exercises, such as walking, jogging, or hiking.
• Taking medicines as prescribed by your healthcare provider to prevent bone loss
• Eating a diet rich in vitamin D and calcium, including milk, cottage cheese, yogurt, sardines, and broccoli.
• Lifestyle modification (Stopping smoking, not drinking too much alcohol).
• Keeping objects, such as electrical cords, off the stairs and floors to prevent falls.
• Using slip-resistant rugs next to the bathtub and installing grab bars in the tub.
• Positioning night lights from the bedroom to the bathroom.
• Using rug pads or nonskid backing to keep rugs in place.
• Not using unsteady furniture or step ladders to stand on.
• Visiting an ophthalmologist every year to have vision checked and vision loss treated to prevent falls.

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