The Umbilical cord is responsible for transporting
nutrients from the mother to the baby throughout the pregnancy period. After
delivery, the baby has a purplish-blue stump that is about a half inch to an
inch long. It will take some time (approximately 1-2 weeks) before the stump
dries up and falls off. This requires that a little care and attention is
needed to this umbilical stump to prevent irritation and infection to the site.

Omphalitis is the term that denotes an infection of the
umbilical stump. It is dangerous because the infection can spread quickly and
easily to the liver, resulting in hepatitis, jaundice and generalized
septicemia. It is always better to prevent this condition by proper care and
handling of the cord itself.

After birth, potential bacterial pathogens normally
colonize the umbilical stump. The invasion of these bacteria into the umbilical
stump leads to omphalitis. The signs of infection you can notice include:

  • Reddish appearance
    of the base of the cord
  • Swollen cord
  • Bleeding of the cord
  • Foul smelling
    discharge emanating from the cord (can be greenish in colour)
  • Pain to the baby
  • Delayed separation
    of the cord

To prevent these symptoms of infection and complications
of this infection to your baby’s general health, you must be mindful of these
life-saving measures:

  • Keep the umbilical area clean: According to World health organization (WHO), this is
    done without applying anything to the cord and in case it becomes soiled, it is
    only cleaned with water
  • Keep the Umbilical area dry: WHO also recommends leaving the umbilical cord stump
    exposed to air or loosely covered by a clean cloth. Cords need to dry up,
    before they will fall off. As they dry up, cords normally change color. They go
    from a shiny yellowish blue, to brown or grey.
  • Use topical antiseptics such as Chlorhexidine in situations where hygienic conditions are
    poor and/or infection rates are high.
  • Only give sponge baths:
    it is advisable not to bathe your baby in a sink or special tub until after the
    umbilical cord stump has fallen off. After bath, make sure to fan the area to
    dry completely. Be careful of rubbing it to dry as this could cause irritation.
  • Allow the cord to heal naturally: It may be tempting to “help” the cord dry out and fall
    off especially if it appears to be hanging on by a thread, but it is best to
    allow this to happen naturally; refrain from picking and pulling the cord off.
  • Prompt changing of diapers when soiled: This is to prevent contamination of the umbilical
    stump. Clean the area with soap and water and ensure it is kept dry afterwards.
  • Fold the diaper down
    to keep the area dry to aid healing, to provide air contact as well and for
    easier inspection to detect deviations from normal.
  • Always check the skin around the base of the cord once a day, ensure to keep the area dry and clean.
  • If you notice any of the signs of infection, promptly see
    a doctor
    . Early detection enhances good
    prognosis of umbilical stump infection.