WHO defines obesity as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair your health. It is a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30 for adults, weight-for-height greater than 3 standard deviations above the WHO Child Growth Standards median for children under the age of 5, and greater than 2 standard deviations above the WHO Growth Reference median for children between 5-19 years.
According to WHO, overweight and obesity are linked to more deaths worldwide than underweight. Obesity is a public health and policy problem because of its prevalence, costs, and health effects
Causes of obesity
Excessivefood intake (high calorie intake).
Lack of physical activity.
Not sleeping enough.
Endocrine disorders (some foods interfering with lipid metabolism).
Complications associated with obesity
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly:
Type 2 diabetes
Obstructive sleep apnea
Certain types ofcancer (including endometrial, breast, ovarian, prostate, liver, gallbladder, kidney, and colon)
Musculoskeletal disorders (Osteoarthritis).
Cardiovascular diseases (mainly heart disease and stroke).
Obese children may experience:
Increased risk of fractures.
Early markers of cardiovascular disease.
Prevention of obesity
Engage in regular physical activity (60 minutes a day for children and 150 minutes spread through the week for adults).
Make healthy food choices by limiting energy intake from total fats and sugars.
Increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, as well as legumes, whole grains and nuts.
Maintain a healthy BMI with regular check and calculation.
Treatment of obesity
Reduction in total daily calorie intake. People who are seriously obese may be prescribed a very low calorie liquid diet. These must be done with a health care professional.
Increase in your level of physical activity.
Medications are only considered as a last resort. That is, if the patient finds it extremely hard to shed pounds, or if his obesity has reached a point that it significantly undermines his health.
Weight loss surgery (bariatric surgery) through restrictive or malabsorptive
Procedures. It alters your stomach or small intestine so that you are unable to consume much food in one sitting
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Carmienke, S; Freitag, M H; Pischon, T; Schlattmann, P; Fankhaenel, T; Goebel, H; Gensichen, J (20 March 2013). “General and abdominal obesity parameters and their combination in relation to mortality: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis”.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
“Obesity and overweight Fact sheet”. June 2016
Khan LK, Sobush K, Keener D, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2009;58(RR-7):1-26. Pubmed.
Hannah Nichols. ‘Treatments for Obesity’. MNT. 2016. Web.