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The theme of World Diabetes Day 2016 is ‘Eyes on Diabetes’. The year’s activities and materials will focus on promoting the importance of screening to ensure early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and treatment to reduce the risk of serious complications.
According to World Health Organization, Diabetes prevalence has been risen more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries, and projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030 .International Diabetes Federation (2016), 1 in 2 people currently living with diabetes is undiagnosed.
Diabetes also known as diabetes mellitus, is a metabolism disorder (Metabolism refers to the way our bodies use digested food for energy and growth) in which an individual has high blood sugar or blood glucose (Glucose is a form of sugar in the blood – it is the principal source of fuel for our bodies), due to inadequate insulin production ( insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas which makes it possible for our cells to take in glucose), non-response of the body cells to insulin, or both.
Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia).
Types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes previously called insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset , occurs as a result of deficient insulin production. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known and it is not preventable with current knowledge.
Patients with type 1 diabetes will require daily administration of insulin for the rest of their life. They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet.
Symptoms include frequent urination (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger (polyphagia), weight loss, vision changes and fatigue. These symptoms may occur suddenly.
Type 2 diabetes previously called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset, results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin or when the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes comprises the majority of people with diabetes around the world, and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are type 2.
Symptoms may be similar to those of Type 1 diabetes, but are often less marked. As a result, the disease may be diagnosed several years after onset, once complications have already arisen.
Until recently, this type of diabetes was seen only in adults but it is now also occurring increasingly frequently in children.
Gestational diabetes is hyperglycaemia with blood glucose values above normal but below those diagnostic of diabetes, occurring during pregnancy. Women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and at delivery. They and their children are also at increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the future.
Gestational diabetes is diagnosed through prenatal screening, rather than through reported symptoms.
Common symptoms of diabetes:
Diabetes increases your risk for many serious health problems. Over time, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. However, badly controlled diabetes can lead to the following:
Simple lifestyle measures have been shown to be effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes. To help prevent type 2 diabetes and its complications, people should:
Treatment of diabetes
Diabetes can be diagnosed early by testing of blood sugar. Treatment of diabetes involves:
Article by: edokita Team.