November 17, 2017
Congenital Disorders; How to prevent birth defects
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Monkeypox is a rare viral infection that is usually transmitted from animals to humans. It is caused by monkeypox virus. It was first identified in 1958 in Denmark when a pox-like disease was discovered among monkeys. Monkeypox was first discovered among humans in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is endemic in Congo. Between August and October 2016, there was an outbreak in the Central African Republic where there were 26 cases with 2 deaths. There is currently an outbreak in the southern part of Nigeria presently affecting Akwa-Ibom and Bayelsa states.
Monkeypox occurs majorly in Central and Western Africa near tropical rain forests. Some cases were however detected in the United States of America in 2003. Most of these patients had close contact with pet prairie dogs.
It is transmitted from wild animals to humans via;
Animals that can readily transmit the virus include;
It can also be transmitted from humans to humans via;
Another major risk factor is consumption of improperly cooked meat of infected animals.
The interval from infection to onset of symptoms (incubation period) is 6-16 days (range; 5-21 days).
The symptoms are similar to that of smallpox and chicken pox. However, smallpox was eradicated in 1980.
The signs and symptoms include;
Monkeypox virus is usually a self-limiting disease with symptoms lasting 14-21 days. The disease is more severe in children. The severity is also associated with the extent of viral exposure, patient’s health status and severity of complication.
There is currently no treatment or vaccine available for the disease. As a result, doctors manage the symptoms symptomatically. Furthermore, The case fatality ratio is between 1-10%
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