Mania is the Greek word for madness. An abnormally elevated mood state characterized by inappropriate elation, increased irritability, markedly increased energy and activity level, poor judgment, and inappropriate social behaviour. This episode is seen in a form of bipolar disorder which can last a week or more. A person with mania can exhibit either irritability or elation at any time depending on the symptoms observed by the person’s friends and relatives. These symptoms can be seen as severe when it gets to the point of causing malfunction at work or role impairment with friends and family. It can be severe enough to demand hospitalization.
Types of Mania
Mixed affective states: This is formerly known as mixed-manicor mixed It is defined as a state wherein features unique to both depression and mania such as despair, fatigue, morbid or suicidal thoughts, pressure of activity, and heightened irritability occur either simultaneously or in very short succession.
Hypomania: Is a condition of low mania episodes, which is similar to mania but less severe. A hypomania person will exhibit some symptoms of mania like elevated mood, increased energy in all; they do not cause significant distress or impair their work, family, or social life in an obvious way like manic episodes do.
Signs and Symptoms of Mania
Lack of rest and sleep
Increased self-esteem or pride (grandiosity)
Flight of ideas
Difficulty in concentration
Decreased need for food
Increase in goal directed activity
Increased interest in pleasurable activities
Heightened sense of smell and touch
Being extremely impulsive
Taking on too many projects and having nothing done.
Causes of Mania
High level of stress
Use of stimulants e.g. drugs, alcohol
Seasonal changes e.g. cold or dry
Loss or bereavement
Lack of sleep
Violence or abuse
Side effect of neurological condition e.g. dementia
Mania isn’t curable but its symptoms can be controlled with medications and therapies which are more effective when combined together.
Anti-psychotic drugs: These drugs help to relieve psychotic symptoms e.g. haloperidol, chlorpromazine
Mood stabilizer: Works to reduce manic symptoms e.g. sodium valproate
Anti-convulsant: To stabilize moods and abolish fits e.g. valproate, carbamazepine
Adopting good lifestyle like eating balanced diets, Taking enough rest and sleep
Psychotherapy: These are therapies put in place to correct negative thoughts, behaviours and lifestyle choices e.g. cognitive and behavioural therapy, family therapy.