November 17, 2017
Congenital Disorders; How to prevent birth defects
Comments are off for this post.
Worldwide, breast cancer in women is the leading type of cancer, accounting for 25% of all cases. In 2012 it resulted in 1.68 million new cases and 522,000 deaths. It is more common in developed countries and is more than 100 times more common in women than in men. According to American cancer society, breast cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in the U.S and also the second leading cause of cancer deaths.
Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in Nigeria. It is most commonly found in premenopausal women in their 5th decade. According to Elima et al the age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) at the Ibadan cancer centre was 52.0 per 100 000 and 64.6 per 100 000 in the Abuja cancer centre.
The cause of breast cancer is unknown. One in 8 women has a lifetime risk of having breast cancer. The chances of having breast cancer increase with age.
Breast cancer is always caused by damage to a cell’s DNA. This then leads to an abnormal proliferation of the damaged cell. Genetic (family history and mutation of BRACA 1&2 genes) and environmental factors (such as obesity, use of oral contraceptives, alcohol) can lead to this cellular damage in a susceptible person
The initial sign of breast cancer is a lump more than 80% of breast cancer cases are discovered when the woman feels a lump. However, about 20% of breast lumps are not cancerous. There also can be significant enlargement of one breast compared to the other. Other signs of breast cancer in women include:
Other symptoms that can occur when metastasis (spread to other parts of the body) are;
Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Women
If a nodule is picked up during a routine mammography, a file needle aspiration of the nodule can be done and the sample sent for histology. Also if it’s a lump that was palpated by the woman, a minor surgery to remove the lump is done and the sample sent to the laboratory for review under a microscope (histology).
Sometimes if on examination the doctor is suspecting metastasis, some other tests will have to be conducted such as CT scan, MRI, liver function test etc.
This depends on the grade and stage of the disease.
Stages of breast cancer
The treatment options include;
Outcomes for breast cancer vary depending on the cancer type, extent of disease, and person’s age. Survival rates in the developed world are high, with between 80% and 90% of those in England and the United States alive for at least 5 years. In developing countries, survival rates are poorer.
Comments are closed.